RTI Explained

Effective July 1, 2012, all school districts in NYS must have an RtI program in place as part of its evaluation process to determine if a student in grades K-4 is a student with a learning disability in the area of reading. (NYSED, 2009) Camden Central Schools is continuing development of a District Wide RtI Program. Resources are available at the left of this webpage. These documents were developed to assist teachers with Researched Based Interventions in ELA. For more information regarding RtI please refer to the information provided below or contact the Assistant Superintendent for Instruction at (315) 245-4092.



What is RtI?

RtI is a nationally recognized instructional process that begins with appropriate core instruction; early screening and identification of students who are struggling in academic and behavioral areas; and, continuous monitoring on how well these students respond to changes in targeted instruction to address their learning needs. To ensure that underachievement in a student suspected of having a learning disability is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading, effective July 1, 2012, all school districts in NYS must have an RtI process in place as part of its process to determine if a student in grades K-4 is a student with a learning disability in the area of reading." (NYSED, 2009) To view the full memo please click here.


RtI Snapshot

RtI is based on the following core principles:

  • We can effectively teach all children
  • Use a multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Intervene early
  • Use a problem-solving method to make decisions within a multi-tier model
  • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction to the extent available
  • Monitor student progress to inform instruction
  • Use data to make decisions
  • Use assessments for three different purposes:

(Joint Paper by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education and the Council of Adminstrators of Special Education, May 2006)


Three key components of RtI are:

High-quality instruction/intervention, which is defined as instruction or intervention matched to student need that has been demonstrated through scientific research and practice to produce high learning rates for most students. Individual response is assessed in RtI and modifications to instruction/ intervention or goals are made depending on results with individual students.

Learning rate and level of performance are the primary sources of information used in ongoing decisionmaking. Learning rate refers to a student’s growth in achievement or behavior competencies over time compared to prior levels of performance and peer growth rates. Level of performance refers to a student’s relative standing on some dimension of achievement/performance compared to expected performance (either criterion- or norm-referenced). Decisions about the use of more or less intense interventions are made using information on learning rate and level. More intense interventions may occur in general education classrooms or pull-out programs supported by general, compensatory or special education funding.

Important educational decisions about intensity and likely duration of interventions are based on individual student response to instruction across multiple tiers of intervention. Decisions about the necessity of more intense interventions, including eligibility for special education, exit from special education or other services, are informed by data on learning rate and level.

(Joint Paper by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education and the Council of Adminstrators of Special Education, May 2006)


Assessment

Assessment in an RtI model is essential. In an RtI problem-solving model, assessment is directly linked to several strategic purposes –

Screening in RtI is an assessment that is provided to all students several times per year with the express purpose of identifying (as early as possible) students who are not making expected progress and to assess the effectiveness of the core curriculum. Those students identified through screening are provided with diagnostic assessments to ascertain specific skill strengths and deficits. After targeted intervention is provided, progress monitoring is employed with students to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and to determine the intensity of interventions and resources needed to support student learning.

In short, the function of assessment in RtI is to identify at-risk students as early as possible, to gather relevant data to support educational decisionmaking and to impact what the teacher is doing to improve achievement. The framework of assessment tools must be increasingly sensitive to detect subtle changes in achievement in student performance as assessments move from screening to diagnostics to progress monitoring. Research on Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) is very applicable to RtI and a problem-solving model.